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Decoding Your Menstrual Cycle: Signs and Symptoms

Understanding the Menstrual Cycle

As obstetrician-gynecologists providing women’s health services in Chicago, we believe that one of the keys to taking charge of your health is understanding your body. One critical aspect of women’s health often overlooked is menstrual health. Many women aren’t fully aware of the details of their menstrual cycle, yet it plays a crucial role in their overall health and well-being.

A General Overview of the Menstrual Cycle

In general, a woman’s menstrual cycle is the monthly hormonal cycle a female’s body goes through to prepare for possible pregnancy. It includes the period, or menstruation, through ovulation and ends just before the next period commences, normally lasting anywhere from 21 to 35 days.

Decoding the Phases of Your Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is typically broken down into four phases: the menstrual phase, the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase. Each phase is marked by specific characteristics, and being able to identify them can be extremely beneficial to your menstrual health:

• The Menstrual Phase: This is when the lining of your uterus sheds, causing bleeding. This phase usually lasts between 3 to 7 days.

• The Follicular Phase: The hypothalamus triggers the pituitary gland to produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), stimulating the ovaries to produce around 5 to 20 follicles. Each follicle contains an immature egg.

• Ovulation: A surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) causes the dominant follicle to burst and release an egg that then travels down the fallopian tube.

• The Luteal Phase: If the egg is not fertilized, estrogen and progesterone levels decrease, and the thickened lining of the uterus (endometrium) is shed during the menstrual phase.

Understanding Signs and Symptoms of Your Menstrual Cycle

Each phase of the menstrual cycle is accompanied by specific signs and symptoms that can have significant effects on your daily life. Recognizing these can help you understand your body better, leading to optimized menstrual health.

• Premenstrual symptoms: Increase in acne, breast tenderness, bloating and changes in mood are common.

• Menstrual pain: This can range from mild to severe and includes symptoms such as cramping, lower back pain, and headaches.

• Changes in menstrual flow: The duration and amount of blood loss can change from cycle to cycle.

• Ovulation symptoms: Some women may experience mild pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen, increased discharge, or a heightened sense of smell.

Importance of Tracking Your Menstrual Cycle

Given the relationship between menstrual cycle phases and various signs and symptoms, tracking your menstrual cycle can be an invaluable tool for managing menstrual health. It can aid in:

• Identifying fluctuations: Blood flow, discomfort, and mood can shift across different cycles. Tracking helps map these changes over time.

• Predicting your period: A regular cycle allows you to relatively accurately predict when your next period will begin.

• Fertility planning: By identifying ovulation, tracking helps determine when you are most fertile.

• Health indicator: Changes in the menstrual cycle can be a symptom of various health conditions.

Period tracking apps or keeping a record on your calendar can greatly aid in taking charge of your menstrual health.

Menstrual Cycle Irregularities

While variations in the menstrual cycle are normal, consistent irregularities might indicate health concerns. You should consult a healthcare provider about menstrual cycles that:

• Are consistently shorter than 21 days or longer than 35 days.

• Differ greatly in length (more than 7-9 days) from cycle to cycle.

• Result in significantly heavy or light bleeding.

• Cause extreme pain or discomfort.

These irregularities could point to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, fibroids, or even thyroid issues. Our team at the Women’s Health Group in Chicago offers expert advice and treatment methodologies for these and other menstrual health-related concerns.


Understanding and tracking your menstrual cycle equips you with valuable insights into your body and overall health. It allows for improved control over menstrual health, more effective family planning, and the early detection of potential health issues. For more extensive information on menstrual health, check this comprehensive article from Mayo Clinic and this insightful resources from Women’s Taking charge of your menstrual health empowers you to live your best, healthiest life.

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Decoding Your Menstrual Cycle: Signs and Symptoms

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